Patient-Centered Care for Women: Delphi Consensus on Evidence-Derived Recommendations [Editor's Choice]



Patient-centered care (PCC) could reduce gender inequities in quality of care. Little is known about how to implement patient-centered care for women (PCCW). We aimed to generate consensus recommendations for achieving PCCW.


We used a 2-round Delphi technique. Panelists included 21 women of varied age, ethnicity, education, and urban/rural residence; and 21 health professionals with PCC or women’s health expertise. Panelists rated recommendations, derived from prior research and organized by a 6-domain PCC framework, on a 7-point Likert scale in an online survey. We used summary statistics to report response frequencies and defined consensus as when ≥85% panelists chose 5 to 7.


The response rate was 100%. In round 1, women and professionals retained 46 (97.9%) and 42 (89.4%) of 47 initial recommendations, respectively. The round 2 survey included 6 recommendations for women and 5 recommendations for professionals (did not achieve consensus in round 1 or were newly suggested). In round 2, women retained 2 of 6 recommendations and professionals retained 3 of 5 recommendations. Overall, 49 recommendations were generated. Both groups agreed on 44 (94.0%) recommendations (13 retained by 100% of both women and clinicians): fostering patient-physician relationship (n = 11), exchanging information (n = 10), responding to emotions (n = 4), managing uncertainty (n = 5), making decisions (n = 8), and enabling patient self-management (n = 6).


The recommendations represent the range of PCC domains, are based on evidence from primary research, and reflect high concordance between women and professional panelists. They can inform the development of policies, guidelines, programs, and performance measures that foster PCCW.


Tali Filler Angel M. Foster Sherry L. Grace Donna E. Stewart Sharon E. Straus Anna R. Gagliardi

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