Mapping and Analyzing Stakeholders in China’s Essential Drug System by Using a Circular Model- Who We Should Deal with Next?



To predict the prospects of the essential drug system by using the Stakeholder Impact Index (SII) and evaluate the current performance of each main stakeholder and suggested dangerous stakeholders and dormant stakeholders.


A Delphi method was used, involving 36 experts with experience in implementation and evaluation of the essential drug policy, to construct the circular model as well as evaluate the performance of each stakeholder.


The central government was a dominant stakeholder of the whole essential drug system. The provincial governments were definitive stakeholders, whereas local governments and medical institutions were dependent stakeholders. Furthermore, media and drug stores were dormant stakeholders and pharmaceutical manufacturers and delivery enterprises were dangerous stakeholders. Patients, community residents, and medical insurance programs were discretionary stakeholders. The SII for the essential drug system was positive (SII = 2.72).


The overall anticipation of the essential drug policy is optimistic. Letting definitive stakeholders (provincial governments) having more autonomy can efficiently accelerate the pace of implementation of the essential drug policy in the current situation. Central government, however, also needs to construct an experience exchange platform with the aim of building versatile methods for running the essential drug system in all provinces. Pharmaceutical manufacturers and delivery enterprises were dangerous stakeholders for the essential drug policy. Because of their potential threat to the implementation of the policy, the central government should motivate them to support the construction of the essential drug system spontaneously. In that case, provincial governments need to construct a fair, balanced, and self-stabilized bidding platform.


Hui Shao Shixue Li Lingzhong Xu Shuang Yang Nicholas J. Thomas Mohammed Umer Mir Zhen Guo Bo Ning Lizheng Shi

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