Cost-Effectiveness of Glucose-Lowering Therapies as Add-on to Standard Care for People With Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysia [Editor's Choice]



This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of various glucose-lowering therapies as add-on to standard care for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysia.


A state-transition microsimulation model was developed to compare the clinical and economic outcomes of 4 treatments: standard care, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from a healthcare provider’s perspective over a lifetime horizon with 3% discount rate in a hypothetical cohort of people with T2D. Data input were informed from literature and local data when available. Outcome measures include costs, quality-adjusted life-years, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefits. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess uncertainties.


Over a lifetime horizon, the costs to treat a person with T2D ranged from RM 12 494 to RM 41 250, whereas the QALYs gains ranged from 6.155 to 6.731, depending on the treatment. Based upon a willingness-to-pay threshold of RM 29 080 per QALY, we identified SGLT2i as the most cost-effective glucose-lowering treatment, as add-on to standard care over patient’s lifetime, with the net monetary benefit of RM 176 173 and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of RM 12 279 per QALY gained. The intervention also added 0.577 QALYs and 0.809 LYs compared with standard care. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed that SGLT2i had the highest probability of being cost-effective in Malaysia across varying willingness-to-pay threshold. The results were robust to various sensitivity analyses.


SGLT2i was found to be the most cost-effective intervention to mitigate diabetes-related complications.


Ruth Sim Chun Wie Chong Navin Kumar Loganadan Pantakarn Saidoung Noor Lita Adam Zanariah Hussein Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk Shaun Wen Huey Lee

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