Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Using EQ-5D-5L Tool With Indian Tariffs Among Reproductive Age Group Women Living With HIV in India [Editor's Choice]



India is witnessing declining HIV prevalence because of dedicated efforts by the government. The highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved life span of people living with HIV but bearing many side effects. Women living with HIV (WLHIV) in reproductive age group have additional burden of pregnancy-related issues. This study aimed to estimate the health utility score among WLHIV in India, particularly in context of their contraceptive use, during pregnancy and postpartum period.


A primary cross-sectional study was conducted among 195 WLHIV availing antiretroviral treatment services at public health facilities of Mumbai. The EQ-5D-5L interview-based questionnaire in local language and Indian value set was used to estimate health-related quality of life (QOL) reported as mean (± SD) utility and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. The relationship between utility values and VAS scores was assessed.


The WLHIV with mean age of 31.6 (6.4) years were on antiretroviral medication for nearly 7 years, and 63% had CD4+ cell count > 500 cells/mm. Response of “11111,” that is, in full health state, was reported by 66.7%. The mean utility and VAS scores were 0.976 (± 0.0519) and 82.21 (± 15.77). Reduced health-related QOL scores were associated with pain and discomfort dimension. Utility scores among contraceptive users (0.986 [± 0.029]) was higher than nonusers (0.976 [± 0.028]). Currently pregnant WLHIV had least utility score (0.959 [± 0.088]).


WLHIV had better QOL while using contraceptives more so when they were sterilized. Pregnancy reduces the QOL. This emphasizes the need to promote effective contraceptive methods among WLHIV and prevent unintended pregnancies.


Namrata Kharat Revathy Ramachandra Himanshu Chaurasia Siddesh Shetty Shahina Begum Beena Joshi

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