Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Beta EQ-5D-Y-5L Into Chichewa (Malawi)



The EuroQol Group is developing a new EQ-5D-Y-5L version with 5 severity levels for each of the 5 dimensions. The 5 severity levels describe different health severities and there is a potential for severity level inversion. This article aims to report the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the beta EQ-5D-Y-5L into Chichewa (Malawi) using the card ranking exercise, which has been added to the EQ-5D-Y-5L translation protocol.


To assess the correct hierarchical ordering of severity levels, the adaptation followed the EQ-5D-Y-5L translation protocol. Cognitive interviews were undertaken to establish conceptual equivalence. Thereafter, 4 iterations of ranking exercises were conducted, leading to amendments of the translated Chichewa version to arrive at a final version.


The iterations were assessed by 18 participants aged 8 to 14 years. Health proved to be a difficult concept to translate as was “discomfort.” Cognitive interviews identified further conceptual issues, particularly with the “looking after myself” dimension. Considerations about lack of soap or water indicated that some children did not fully comprehend this dimension as being about the ability to wash and dress themselves. The iterative card ranking exercise detected severity level inversion between “a little bit” and “some,” and between “a lot” and “extreme” and alternative Chichewa words/phrases were then tested. Ultimately, the intended hierarchical severity ranking was achieved and an acceptable Chichewa version was produced.


Conceptual and linguistic equivalence to the English EQ-5D-Y-5L was established for the Chichewa EQ-5D-Y-5L version. The card ranking exercise was instrumental in correcting severity level inversion and supporting the comprehensible translation.


Lucky G. Ngwira Jennifer Jelsma Hendramoorthy Maheswaran Fanny Kapakasa Sarah Derrett Stavros Petrou Louis Niessen Sarah C. Smith

Explore Related HEOR by Topic

Your browser is out-of-date

ISPOR recommends that you update your browser for more security, speed and the best experience on Update my browser now