The Cost-Effectiveness of Adjuvant Tamoxifen Treatment of Hormone Receptor–Positive Early Breast Cancer Among Premenopausal and Perimenopausal Ghanaian Women



Most breast cancer cases in Ghana occur in premenopausal and perimenopausal (PPM) women. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of tamoxifen compared with no tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor–positive (HR+) early breast cancer (EBC) among PPM Ghanaian women.


A Markov model was constructed to synthesize data on the effectiveness, costs, and health benefits of tamoxifen. Effectiveness and utility data were sourced from a literature review. Resource use and healthcare costs were estimated from Ghanaian sources. The evaluation was conducted in 2017 from the perspective of the health system over a 15-year time horizon. The financial impact of funding tamoxifen on Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was also estimated.


Adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for women with HR+ EBC was more effective and more costly than no-tamoxifen therapy. The incremental benefit and costs were estimated to be 1.38 quality-adjusted life-years gained and Ghana cedis (GHC) 2338 ($520), respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be GHC 1694 ($376). The model was sensitive to the cost of tamoxifen and utility values. The cost of tamoxifen for the treatment of HR+ EBC represents less than 0.01% GHC 96 960 ($21 547) of the current NHIS total claims expenditure.


Tamoxifen provides additional benefits to PPM Ghanaian women with HR+ EBC and is cost-effective compared with no tamoxifen. These results support the public funding of tamoxifen under the NHIS and provide Ghanaian policy makers with vital information for future budgetary planning.


Rebecca Addo Marion Haas Stephen Goodall

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