Assessment of Costs Associated with Hospital-Acquired Infections in a Private Tertiary Care Hospital in India



This study aims to assess the costs associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in a private tertiary care hospital in northern India.


This retrospective case-control study covered four types of HAIs: urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and surgical site infections. The “case” group comprised patients who had developed HAIs, whereas the “control” group had patients who had not acquired HAIs. The control group was matched with the case group on the criteria of age, diagnosis, and severity of illness. Drugs’ acquisition costs, hospital rental, consultation fees, investigation costs, and antimicrobial costs were computed for patients over a period of 1 year, and comparisons were made between both the arms of the study. The costs were also compared within the different HAIs.


Of the four types of HAIs studied, the most commonly encountered infection was bloodstream infection (38%). The pathogen most frequently responsible for causing HAIs was Acinetobacter baumanii. Patients aged between 60 and 69 years were found to be more susceptible to HAIs than the patients in other age groups. Furthermore, the most common diagnosis of patients who developed HAI was head injury followed by renal failure. Drugs’ acquisition costs, rent, consultation fees, investigation costs, and antimicrobial costs were significantly higher for cases than for controls (P0.001). Drugs’ acquisition cost was the major contributor of the extra cost, and antimicrobial drugs constituted almost half of it.


This study has provided evidence that the cost of drugs is a major contributor to costs of HAIs in an Indian setting. Continuous surveillance and prophylaxis is recommended for reducing HAIs.


Pramil Tiwari Manisha Rohit

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