Indacaterol/Glycopyrronium versus Salmeterol/Fluticasone in Patients with COPD—A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Czech Republic



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents an illness with significant healthcare and societal impacts. Fixed combinations of long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroids have been used for COPD treatment as the standard of care for many years. A daily dose of indacaterol and glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) at 110/50 µg has recently been gaining attention due to its improved efficacy and tolerability versus the standard of care.The study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of once daily IND/GLY vs. twice daily salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) at 50/500 µg in COPD patients.


A microsimulation model in MS Excel was adapted to the Czech setting. Effectiveness data and disease severity stages were obtained from the FLAME study, which is a head-to head trial comparing IND/GLY vs. SFC. Quality of life data were derived from a literature review. Costs (medication, monitoring and complications) were taken from published Czech sources. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3 %. A lifetime horizon was used for the analysis. Cost-effectiveness was studied from the perspective of a health care system in the Czech Republic.


Mean QALYs were higher in the IND/GLY arm (difference 0.167 QALYs). The ICER of IND/GLY compared with SFC was €13,628 per QALY gained. Deterministic sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the base-case result to be robust.


From the perspective of the Czech health care system, managing COPD using IND/GLY is cost-effective in this analysis because the base-case is clearly below the willingness-to-pay threshold in the Czech Republic, which is automatically set at 3 times GDP/capita (approximately €44,000/ QALY). This is the first available economic analysis utilizing FLAME study results in the Central East European (CEE) countries showing IND/ GLY as a highly cost-effective investment into COPD patients.


Jana Skoupa Viktor Kasak Jiri Klimes Tomas Valena

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