Cost Effectiveness of Intracranial Pressure Monitoring in Pediatric Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury- A Simulation Modeling Approach



To conduct an economic evaluation of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring on the basis of current evidence from pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury, through a statistical model.


The statistical model is a decision tree, whose branches take into account the severity of the lesion, the hospitalization costs, and the quality-adjusted life-year for the first 6 months post-trauma. The inputs consist of probability distributions calculated from a sample of 33 surviving children with severe traumatic brain injury, divided into two groups: with ICP monitoring (monitoring group) and without ICP monitoring (control group). The uncertainty of the parameters from the sample was quantified through a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using the Monte-Carlo simulation method. The model overcomes the drawbacks of small sample sizes, unequal groups, and the ethical difficulty in randomly assigning patients to a control group (without monitoring).


The incremental cost in the monitoring group was Mex$3,934 (Mexican pesos), with an increase in quality-adjusted life-year of 0.05. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was Mex$81,062. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve had a maximum at 54% of the cost effective iterations. The incremental net health benefit for a willingness to pay equal to 1 time the per capita gross domestic product for Mexico was 0.03, and the incremental net monetary benefit was Mex$5,358.


The results of the model suggest that ICP monitoring is cost effective because there was a monetary gain in terms of the incremental net monetary benefit.


Rita Esther Zapata-Vázquez Fernando José Álvarez-Cervera Felipe Manuel Alonzo-Vázquez José Ramón García-Lira Víctor Granados-García Norma Elena Pérez-Herrera Manuel Medina-Moreno

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