Cost of Osteoporotic Fractures in Singapore



To estimate the 3-month direct and indirect costs associated with osteoporotic fractures from both the hospital’s and patient’s perspectives in Singapore and to compare the cost between acute and prevalent osteoporotic fractures.


Resource use and expenditure data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up between July 2013 and January 2014. Estimated osteoporotic fracture–related costs included hospitalizations, accident and emergency room visits, outpatient physician visits, laboratory tests, medications, transportation, health care and community services, special equipment and home/car modifications, and productivity loss.


A total of 67 patients agreed to participate, giving a response rate of 64.4%. The mean (median) 3-month direct medical cost from the hospital’s perspective was found to be SGD 3,886.90 (SGD 413.10), of which 74.2% was accounted for by inpatient services, 25.2% by outpatient services, and 0.6% by accident and emergency services. Moreover, considerable variation (SD = SGD 2,615.40) was observed in the costs of outpatient rehabilitation services. Findings were similar when the patient’s perspective was taken. The total costs, with both direct and indirect costs included, were SGD 11,438.70 (acute) and SGD 1,015.40 (prevalent), of which 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively, were accounted for by inpatient services.


Hospitalization was associated with the highest cost borne by both the hospital and the patient, and informal care dominated indirect costs. Better knowledge of the financial consequences of fragility fractures could enable proactive and preventive measures to be undertaken, especially at sites of care with high cost drivers.


Charmaine Shuyu Ng Tang Ching Lau Yu Ko

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