This report describes recommendations, organized in six stages, for critically appraising quality and risk of bias in SR- CCEOs: (1) planning and development; (2) search in SR-CCEOs; (3) study selection and eligibility; (4) critical appraisal of the included studies; (5) data extraction and synthesis; (6) presentation and reporting. Naturally, these criteria may be used when conducting SR-CCEO’s. This report includes the ISPOR CrIteria for Cost (-Effectiveness) Review Outcomes (CiCERO) Checklist. The CiCERO Checklist comprises the report’s recommendations and 13 signalling questions to consider when evaluating the risk of bias in SR-CCEOs, as well as the quality of their conduct and reporting. There is a shorter version of the CiCERO Checklist for reviews that summarize methods of cost and cost-effectiveness studies and a specific version for SR-CCEOs that are using AMSTAR-2.
Olena (Lena) Mandrik J.L. (Hans) Severens Ariel Bardach Salah Ghabri Candyce Hamel Tim Mathes Luke Vale Torbjørn Wisløff Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert