Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccines Administered to Children Less Than 5 Years of Age in a Low-Income District of Bogota, Colombia



The Colombian health authorities introduced the pneumococcal conjugated vaccine and the seasonal influenza vaccine into the national immunization schedule for children in 2009 and 2007, respectively. Despite this, the health authorities continue to be concerned about the high economic and disease burden among children from low-income households caused by these vaccine-preventable diseases.


1) To evaluate the potential health outcomes of four vaccination strategies for subsidized children younger than 5 years in a low-income district in Colombia from a public, direct medical health care perspective. 2) To perform univariate, multivariate, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the robustness of these results.


We built a Markov deterministic cohort model to evaluate five consecutive cohorts across four alternative situations: 1) no vaccination; 2) vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 vaccine); 3) vaccination with the trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) annually; and 4) combined vaccination with PCV10 vaccine and TIV.


The introduction of PCV10 vaccine and TIV and their combined use in particular would be highly cost-effective in comparison to no vaccination. For the combined vaccination with PCV10 vaccine and TIV, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio would be $1,280 per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, the total incremental cost of the vaccination program would be $776,800, and it would avert four deaths and 332 DALYs for the five cohorts.


The introduction of PCV10 vaccine and TIV would be highly cost-effective from a public, direct medical health care perspective. Despite these results, we have not observed decreases in severity or hospitalizations. Our findings highlight the need for further studies of the immunization campaign indicators and socioeconomic indicators for this low-income community.


Carlos Lara Diana De Graeve Fabian Franco

Your browser is out-of-date

ISPOR recommends that you update your browser for more security, speed and the best experience on Update my browser now