Patient Preferences for Medications in Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Discrete Choice Experiment



To quantify patients’ maximum acceptable risk (MAR) of urinary and genital tract infections (UGTI) in exchange for benefits associated with treatments for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


In a discrete choice experiment, adult patients with T2DM and currently on metformin and/or sulphonylurea (first-line treatments) were asked to choose between 2 hypothetical medications defined by 6 attributes: years of medication effectiveness in controlling blood glucose, weight reduction, UGTI risk, risk of hospitalization from heart failure, all-cause mortality risk, and out-of-pocket medication cost. We used latent class logistic regression parameters to estimate the conditional relative importance of treatment attributes and MAR of UGTI for various treatment benefits.


A 2-class latent class model was identified as the best fit for the responses from 147 patients. The first class (49% of sample), termed as “survival-conscious,” stated that they were willing to accept 46% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2%-90%) UGTI risk in exchange for a reduction from 6% to 1% in all-cause mortality risk. The second class (51% of sample), termed as “UGTI/cost-conscious” were willing to accept significantly lower (6%; CI: 2%-11%, and 5%; CI: 2%-8%) UGTI risk in exchange for the same reduction in all-cause mortality and hospitalization risks, respectively.


On average, patients were willing to trade higher UGTI risk for a more effective medication. Our findings suggest that physicians should present the benefits and potential side effects of all available treatments and consider patient preferences in their treatment recommendations.


Semra Ozdemir Drishti Baid Naina R. Verghese Amanda YR. Lam Phong Ching Lee Adoree YY. Lim Ling Zhu Sonali Ganguly Eric A. Finkelstein Su-Yen Goh

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