Lifetime Health and Economic Outcomes of Active Surveillance, Radical Prostatectomy, and Radiotherapy for Favorable-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer

Dec 1, 2021, 00:00 AM
Section Order : 1737
First Page : 1737


To estimate the lifetime health and economic outcomes of selecting active surveillance (AS), radical prostatectomy (RP), or radiation therapy (RT) as initial management for low- or favorable-risk localized prostate cancer.


A discrete-event simulation model was developed using evidence from published randomized trials. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs were included from a public payer perspective in Australian dollars. Outcomes were discounted at 5% over a lifetime horizon. Probabilistic and scenario analyses quantified parameter and structural uncertainty.


A total of 60% of patients in the AS arm eventually received radical treatment (surgery or radiotherapy) compared with 90% for RP and 91% for RT. Although AS resulted in fewer treatment-related complications, it led to increased clinical progression (AS 40.7%, RP 17.6%, RT 19.9%) and metastatic disease (AS 13.4%, RP 6.1%, RT 7.0%). QALYs were 10.88 for AS, 11.10 for RP, and 11.13 for RT. Total costs were A$17 912 for AS, A$15 609 for RP, and A$15 118 for RT. At a willingness to pay of A$20 000/QALY, RT had a 61.4% chance of being cost-effective compared to 38.5% for RP and 0.1% for AS.


Although AS resulted in fewer and delayed treatment-related complications, it was not found to be a cost-effective strategy for favorable-risk localized prostate cancer over a lifetime horizon because of an increase in the number of patients developing metastatic disease. RT was the dominant strategy yielding higher QALYs at lower cost although differences compared with RP were small.
HEOR Topics :
  • Cost-comparison, Effectiveness, Utility, Benefit Analysis
  • Decision Modeling & Simulation
  • Economic Evaluation
  • Oncology
  • Specific Diseases & Conditions
  • Study Approaches
Tags :
  • active monitoring
  • active surveillance
  • cost-effectiveness
  • cost-utility
  • discrete-event simulation
  • health economics
  • localized prostate cancer
  • modeling
  • radiation therapy
  • radical prostatectomy
  • radiotherapy
  • simulation
Regions :
  • Asia Pacific (including Oceania)