The EQ-HWB: Overview of the Development of a Measure of Health and Wellbeing and Key Results



Existing measures for estimating quality-adjusted life-years are mostly limited to health-related quality of life. This article presents an overview of the development the EQ-HWB (EQ Health and Wellbeing), which is a measure that encompasses health and wellbeing.


Stages: (1) Establishing domains through reviews of the qualitative literature informed by a conceptual framework. (2) Generation and selection of items to cover the domains. (3) Face validation of these items through qualitative interviews with 168 patients, social care users, general population, and carers across 6 countries (Argentina, Australia, China, Germany, United Kingdom, United States). (4) Extensive psychometric testing of candidate items (using classical, factor analysis, and item response theory methods) on > 4000 respondents in the 6 countries. Stakeholders were consulted throughout.


A total of 32 subdomains grouped into 7 high-level domains were identified from the qualitative literature and 97 items generated to cover them. Face validation eliminated 36 items, modified 14, and added 3. Psychometric testing of 64 items found little difference in missing data or problems with response distribution, the conceptual model was confirmed except in China, and most items performed well in the item response theory in all countries. Evidence was presented to stakeholders in 2 rounds of consultation to inform the final selection of items for the EQ-HWB (25-item) and the short version of EQ-HWB (9-items).


EQ-HWB measures have been developed internationally for evaluating interventions in health, public health, and social care including the impact on patients, social care users, and carers.


John Brazier Tessa Peasgood Clara Mukuria Ole Marten Simone Kreimeier Nan Luo Brendan Mulhern A. Simon Pickard Federico Augustovski Wolfgang Greiner Lidia Engel Maria Belizan Zhihao Yang Andrea Monteiro Maja Kuharic Luz Gibbons Kristina Ludwig Jill Carlton Janice Connell Stacey Rand Nancy Devlin Karen Jones Aki Tsuchiya Rosemary Lovett Bhash Naidoo Donna Rowen Juan Carlos Rejon-Parrilla

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