Economic Evaluation of Vaccines Designed to Prevent Infectious Disease: Good Practices Task Force

Economic Analysis of Vaccination Programs: ISPOR Good Practices Task Force

Appendix B Value Frameworks for Economic Analyses of Vaccination Programs

Appendix C Cost Effectiveness Analysis

Appendix D Constrained Optimization Modeling

Appendix E Fiscal Health Modeling

Thank you to those who reviewed these reports. Your insight and expertise contribute to the high quality, multi-perspective and consensus nature of ISPOR Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force Reports.

Josephine Mauskopf, PhD
Vice President, Health Economics,
RTI Health Solutions
Baudouin Standaert, MD, PhD
Health Economics, GSK Vaccines,
Leadership Group:

Mark Connolly,PhD, Guest Researcher, University of Groningen, the Netherlands and Managing Director, Global Market Access Solutions LLC, Geneva, Switzerland  
Tony Culyer, CBE, BA, Emeritus Professor, University of York, York, UK
Lou Garrison, PhD, Professor, Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Raymond Hutubessy, PhD, MSc, Senior Health Economist, Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland
Mark Jit, BSc, PhD, MPH, Reader, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London, UK
Richard Pitman, PhD, BSc, Lead Epidemiologist, ICON, Oxfordshire, UK
Paul Revill, MSc, Research Fellow, University of York, Centre for Health Economics, York, UK
Hans Severens, PhD, Professor of Evaluation in Health Care, iBMG - Institute of Health Policy & Management and iMTA - Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands


To provide information to researchers and health care decision makers about economic evaluation methods that can be applied to estimate the value of new vaccination programs against infectious diseases including CEA, mathematical programming and return on investment analysis. In addition the Task Force will:

  1. Provide a set of recommendations for good practice for performing and presenting each type of analysis;
  2. Assess the relevance of each method for different decision makers;
  3. Assess under which circumstances the different approaches may be complementary to each other showing a more complete value picture of the new vaccines.

The recommendations for CEA will not duplicate the ones from previous ISPOR Task Forces on CEA but will reference these publications and focus on those elements of the CEA methods that are specific for vaccines.


There are several ways in which vaccines as a preventative intervention may differ from treatment. They may be evaluated as part of a public health program rather than as part of a jurisdiction’s health care system. They have externalities that are likely to affect the whole population. Since large and predictable quantities are required to cover the indicated population each year, purchasing and distribution may be operated centrally. For all these reasons economic evaluation of vaccines may be reviewed by decision-makers with different remits (e.g. Health Technology Assessment for reimbursement decisions, protection of the public health, financial health and economic development for a jurisdiction, vaccine purchasing and distribution) and, therefore, require a variety of methods for economic evaluation in addition to those methods generally used for treatment and other prevention activities. In addition, there is a need for different ways to present the results of those evaluations to meet the needs of decision makers. Background continued...


There are a variety of methods currently used to estimate the economic value of vaccination programs without a clear understanding of the applicability of the method proposed to the specific jurisdiction or to the remit of the decision maker or to the characteristics of the disease being prevented.

Clear guidance and recommendations for good research practice will provide researchers and health care decision makers with: (a) An understanding of all the different techniques available to value the economic benefit of vaccines and the types of outcomes produced by each technique (b) An understanding of the need to link jurisdiction income level and decision maker remit with an appropriate economic assessment to assess the value of new vaccines (c) A set of clear guidelines and recommendations for good research practice for performing economic evaluations using methods that have been frequently used and their applicability to an assessment of the value of vaccination programs in high- and low-income countries. (d) A description of the strengths and weaknesses of each economic evaluation method focusing on structural issues, input data availability or credibility, and usefulness for the decision maker.




Extending Cost-Effectiveness Analysis with Partial Optimization Modelling and Fiscal Modelling in Vaccine Value Assessments
May 22, 2017 – Forum Presentation, ISPOR 22nd Annual International Meeting, Boston, MA, USA

Economic Value Assessment of Vaccines
May 23, 2016 – Forum Presentation, ISPOR 21st Annual International Meeting, Washington, DC, USA




Proposal reviewed by ISPOR Health Science Policy Councils

September 21 2015

Council suggests revisions

September 24/5 2015

Revisions submitted to HSPC

October 14, 2015

Meeting at ISPOR European Congress, Milan, Italy to review proposal, procedures, and timeline

November 8, 2015

Task Force approval by the Board

December 11, 2015

Hold TC(s) to discuss draft outline and assign section leaders

January 2016

Draft sections and discuss at monthly TC(s)

January – July 15, 2016

TC to review progress on drafts and plan for ISPOR Forum

March 15 – March 22, 2016

Forum at ISPOR International meeting to obtain feedback on outline and key modeling issues

May 23, 2016

Meetings at ISPOR International Meeting to review feedback from Forum and draft to date May 23, 2016

Initial draft completed, TC to review and revise as necessary

September, 2016

Prepare for Forum ISPOR European Congress Vienna, Austria

September – October 2016

Prepare second draft and send to primary reviewers

October, 2016

Forum, ISPOR European Congress, Vienna, Austria

Monday, October 31, 2016

Meeting at ISPOR European Congress to discuss comments and responses from forum and primary reviewers

October 31, November 1, 2, 2016

Revise draft based on comments

December 2016

TC to review third draft January 14 – 31, 2017
Prepare third draft and send to ISPOR review group February 2017
TC to discuss comments from review group March 2017
TC to prepare for forum ISPOR International Meeting Boston, USA April 2017
Present final Task Force Reports at 22nd ISPOR International Meeting May 2017
Hold face-to face meetings to review ISPOR member comments and agree revisions, Boston, USA May 2017
Review revised fourth draft June 2017
Send to review group July 2017
TC to discuss comments and revise draft as needed August 2017
Members and chair finalize and sign off on final report September 2017

Manuscript submitted to Value in Health

September - October 2017


  Working Documents

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